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House of Savoy

Page history last edited by PBworks 14 years, 5 months ago

The House of Savoia or in Italian, "La Casa di Savoia" (or more commonly, though incorrectly is given a French name, the House of Savoy) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region between Piedmont, Italy, France and French-speaking Switzerland. They once had claims on the modern canton of Vaud in Switzerland, but their access to it was cut by Geneva during the Reformation, after which it was conquered by Bern.

 

Their Kingdom ended with the 1946 referendum by which Italians chose the republic as the form of state — see also birth of the Italian Republic. Under the Constitution of Italy|Constitution of the Italian Republic, male descendants of the House of Savoy were forbidden from entering Italy. This provision was removed in 2002.

 

The house descended from Humbert I of Savoy|Humbert I, Count of Sabaudia (or "Maurienne") (Italian Umberto I "Biancamano"), (1003–1047 or 1048), and includes the Counts of Savoy, the Dukes of Savoy, the Kings of Sardinia, and the Kings of Italy. Piedmont was later joined with Sabaudia, and the name evolved into "Savoy" (Italian "Savoia").

 

The Residences of the Royal House of Savoy in Turin and the neighbourhood are protected as the World Heritage Site.

 

List of rulers

Counts of Savoy

Main Branch

  • Umberto I Biancamano : 1003-1047 or 1048
  • Amedeo I Coda : 1048-1051 or 1056
  • Oddone : 1051 or 1056 - 1060
  • Pietro I : 1060-1078
  • Amedeo II : 1060-1080
  • Umberto II : 1080-1103
  • Amedeo III : 1103-1148
  • Umberto III : 1148-1189
  • Tommaso I : 1189-1233
  • Amedeo IV : 1233-1253
  • Bonifacio : 1253-1263
  • Tommaso II : 1253-1259
  • Pietro II : 1263-1268
  • Filippo I : 1268-1285
  • Amedeo V : 1285-1323
  • Edoardo : 1323 - 1329
  • Aimone : 1329-1343
  • Amedeo VI : 1343-1383
  • Amedeo VII : 1383-1391
  • Amedeo VIII : as Count of Savoy 1391-1416

 

Dukes of Savoy

  • Amedeo VIII : as Duke of Savoy 1416-1440
  • Lodovico : 1440-1465
  • Amedeo IX : 1465-1472
  • Filiberto I : 1472-1482
  • Carlo I : 1482-1490
  • Carlo (II) Giovanni Amedeo : 1490-1496
  • Filippo II : 1496-1497
  • Filiberto II : 1497-1504
  • Carlo III : 1504-1553
  • Emanuele Filiberto : 1553-1580
  • Carlo Emanuele I : 1580-1630
  • Vittorio Amedeo I: 1630-1637
  • Francesco Giacinto : 1637-1638
  • Carlo Emanuele II : 1638-1675
  • Vittorio Amedeo II : 1675 - 1720, 1730-1732, as 1st king of Sardinia 1720-1730

 

Kings of Sardinia

  • Vittorio Amedeo II : 1720-1730
  • Carlo Emanuele III : 1730-1773
  • Vittorio Amedeo III : 1773-1796
  • Carlo Emanuele IV : 1796-1802
  • Vittorio Emanuele I : 1802-1821
  • Carlo Felice : 1821-1831

 

Savoy-Carignano Branch

  • Carlo Alberto : 1831-1849
  • Vittorio Emanuele II : 1849-1861

 

Kings of Italy

  • Vittorio Emanuele II : 1861-1878
  • Umberto I : 1878-1900
  • Vittorio Emanuele III : 1900-1946
  • Umberto II : 1946

 

Rulers of other countries

  • Amadeus I of Spain (son of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy) : 1871-1873
  • (ostensibly) Tomislav II of the Independent State of Croatia (grandson of Amadeus I of Spain) : 1941-1943

 

Heads of the House of Savoy since 1946:

  • Umberto II : 1946-1983
  • Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples

 

Name, motto, titles

Name of the dynasty: 'Reale Casa di Savoia'

 

Motto: 'FERT'

  The Motto is believed an acronym of

  • "Foedere Et Religione Tenemur" (We will be kept together by the constitutional pact and by religion)

  but others suggest:

  • "Fortitudo Eius Rhodum Tenuit" (His Our Lord's strength preserved Rhodes) or
  • "Fides Est Regni Tutela" (Faith is the protection of the kingdom)
  • the proposed origin from "Femina Erit Ruina Tua" (Woman will be your ruin) is obviously only a satire.

 

Titles of the Crown of Sardinia

 

VITTORIO AMEDEO III, per la grazia di Dio Re di Sardegna, Cipro, Gerusalemme e Armenia; Duca di Savoja, Monferrato, Chablais, Aosta, e Genevese; Principe di Piemonte ed Oneglia; Marchese d'Italia Saluzzo, Susa, Ivrea, Ceva, Maro, Oristano, Sezana; Conte di Moriana, Geneva, Nizza, Tenda, Asti, Alessandria, Goceano; Barone di Vaud e di Faucigny; Signore di Vercelli, Pinerolo, Tarantasia, Lumellino, Val di Sesia; Principe e Vicario perpetuo del Sacro Romano Imperio in Italia.

 

The English translation is: Victor Amadeus III, by the Grace of God, King of Sardinia, Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia, Duke of Savoy, Montferrat, Chablais, Aosta and Genoa, Prince of Piedmont and Oneglia, Marquess in Italy, of Saluzzo, Susa, Ivrea, Ceva, Maro, Oristano, Sezana, Count of Maurienne, Geneva, Nice, Tende, Asti, Alessandria, Goceano, Baron of Vaud and Faucigny, Lord of Vercelli, Pinerolo, Tarantasia, Lumellino, Val di Sesia, Prince and perpetual Vicar of the Holy Roman Empire in Italy.

 

Titles of the Crown of Italy

 

Victor Emmanuel II, by the Grace of God, King of Italy, King of Sardinia, Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia, Duke of Savoy, count of Maurienne, Marquis (of the Holy Roman Empire) in Italy; prince of Piedmont, Carignan, Oneglia, Poirino, Trino; Prince and Perpetual vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; prince of Carmagnola, Montmellian with Arbin and Francin, prince bailliff of the Duchy of Aosta, Prince of Chieri, Dronero, Crescentino, Riva di Chieri e Banna, Busca, Bene, Brà, Duke of Genoa, Monferrat, Aosta, Duke of Chablais, Genevois, Duke of Piacenza, Marquis of Saluzzo (Saluces), Ivrea, Susa, del Maro, Oristano, Cesana, Savona, Tarantasia, Borgomanero e Cureggio, Caselle, Rivoli, Pianezza, Govone, Salussola, Racconigi con Tegerone, Migliabruna e Motturone, Cavallermaggiore, Marene, Modane e Lanslebourg, Livorno Ferraris, Santhià Agliè, Centallo e Demonte, Desana, Ghemme, Vigone, Count of Barge, Villafranca, Ginevra, Nizza, Tenda, Romont, Asti, Alessandria, del Goceano, Novara, Tortona, Bobbio, Soissons, Sant'Antioco, Pollenzo, Roccabruna, Tricerro, Bairo, Ozegna, delle Apertole, Baron of Vaud e del Faucigni, Lord of Vercelli, Pinerolo, della Lomellina, della Valle Sesia, del marchesato di Ceva, Overlord of Monaco, Roccabruna and 11/12th of Menton, Noble patrician of Venice, patrician of Ferrara.

 

These titles were used during the unified Kingdom of Italy which lasted from 1860-1946 1.

 

 

 

Dynastic orders

The House of Savoy has held two dynastic orders since 1434, which were brought into the Kingdom of Italy as national orders. Although the Kingdom of Italy ceased to exist in 1946, King Umberto II did not abdicate his role as fons honorum over the two dynastic orders over which the family has long held sovereignty and grand mastership. The following are the dynastic orders of the Royal House of Savoy. Today, HRH Victor Emmanuel, Prince of Naples is hereditary Sovereign and Grand Master of these orders.

 

  • Ordine Supremo della SS. Annunziata (The Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation)
  • Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro (The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus)

 

Recently, all three of Victor Emmanuel's sisters (HRH Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Parma, HRH Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy, and HRH Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy) resigned from both of these dynastic orders, alleging that memberships in the orders had been sold to unworthy candidates, a newfound practice they could not abide (The Fall of the House of Savoy, The Guardian, June 23, 2006).

 

In addition to these, the House of Savoy claims sovereignty over the Civil Order of Savoy, and the Order of Merit of Savoy, which are merit orders of the Royal House.

 

Further reading

  • Cox, Eugene L. The Eagles of Savoy: The House of Savoy in Thirteenth-Century Europe. Princeton University Press, 1974.

 

External links

 

Reference

 

other languages: Italiano | Français

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